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Saharawi camps

With the grant from the Municipality of Rivas Vaciamadrid and the Generalitat Valenciana and Jarit UJSARIO association have been able to make the project:

Shabaat el Mahbes

General Objective

Contribute to gender equality and empowerment of women in the exercise of Saharawi rights and social participation.

Specific objective

Promoted integral development of women and the promotion of their equal participation and leadership in local levels of decision, social formation and exercise of rights.

The project was held in Samara on the Daira of Mahbes in refugee camps / as Sahrawis, in
Tindouf-Algeria.

The project was born after several meetings in the House of Youth, after which we could identify the major needs facing the association at the time to continue their activities, and to enable them to develop other self-managing and continuity to his work without it being necessary international aid.

In order to develop actions, intervention was developed in four phases:
1ª Fase: Provide resources and training in resource management.
2ª Fase: Training of trainers in specialized training in various disciplines who develop: sewing, computer and Castilian.
3ª Fase: women formed impart training to other women.
4º Fase: Formulation of new proposals.

Project Phases

Phase 1: Provision of equipment and materials

Description
First, and as necessary to carry out the various workshops, is intended to provide the necessary resources to the counterparty (women's association UJSARIO) and that they are themselves who manage these resources for each of the workshops for, and, depending on the number of participants in training, to the corresponding division. On the one hand, considered vital to provide tools and materials to the association itself Saharawi women to influence the development of their communities and themselves especially.

Phase 2: Training of trainers
Description
From this initial action, the aim is that those who wanted and were able to do, can provide the training of trainers, Saharawi women training as a professional training itself.
This will be done after selection by the center's responsibilities.

So, begins to enter the phase of self-management and self-administration, following the principles of selecting the training of women, so that they can enter the formal system of training, expanding their opportunities for social participation and improving local reality. It will be, ultimately, a training of trainers.

Formation process:

Training of Trainers.
The training focuses, specifically, workshops in three distinct. Each workshop consists of a number of specific women, and, as noted above, will select the most qualified women for each of the workshops, each of those selected will specialize in a specific workshop that available to them. In particular three:

TRAINING WORKSHOPS:
– SEWING.
– INFOMÁTICA.
– CASTILIAN.

The training will be analogous to the three. First, Sewing Workshop, The team will consist of four women, Computer Workshop also selected four women, and, last, Castilian workshop in which selected 2 women. These 10 educated women are the ones responsible in the future (phase 3) to train other women.
On the other hand, consider that it would be a step further and allow those trainers who can continue learning, participating, in the future, the other formations that they are not forming, namely, that further time, can also benefit from other workshops, since it is they who have felt the lack of opportunity and idleness, their learning and allowing them to fill their free time in something more fruitful, aiding their emancipation and their performance as women . Besides it was they who can best influence the development of their locality. And for that, can take advantage of the wide range that is presented.

BACKGROUND

The Sahrawis living in refugee camps in Tindouf, southwest of Algeria, survive on humanitarian aid provided by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). There are more than 200.000 refugees in camps, UNHCR has counted 156.000, and provides food for 90.000, hindering the delivery of aid in an equitable manner among refugees, reducing the portion corresponding to each refugee. For this, Saharawi Red Crescent appeals for help to the various international institutions and alarmed about the risk of starvation in the camps. The associations of solidarity with the Saharawi people in Europe, especially from Spain, and Italy to a lesser extent, organized campaigns to collect food several times a year, to alleviate the plight of refugees and prevent the risk of malnutrition in the population.
International cooperation, also, plays an important role in improving the living conditions of the refugee population. However, the bulk is limited cooperation, in most cases, to provide basic services to the population without encouraging self-reliance could subtract foreign aid to which they are sentenced Sahrawi refugees. For this, need to hear the demands of the Sahrawi refugee civilians, in terms of needs not covered by ongoing projects executed by foreign NGOs operating in the field. Ongoing projects are often oriented towards food, health, education, and, to a lesser extent, vocational training.
Feeding, addition to the World Food Programme when UNHCR, Other projects aimed to improve the quality of refugee diet and increase the number of beneficiaries beyond what UNHCR intended, addition to the sanitation and drinking water control.
In health care it is improvement and equipping of hospitals and clinics, and the provision of sufficient material to professionals, and the supply of drugs to different pharmacies that each camp has. There are specialized medical commission projects (ophthalmology, gynecology, trauma, and so on.) that, at different times of the year, visit to the refugee population to treat as many patients and do surgery when the situation requires.
The primary education is the only possible, be compulsory, in camps, as to study the secondary, bachelor, and for higher studies and college, is necessary to go outside the camps where there are agreements between the Polisario Front (local administration in the camps) and other countries such as Algeria (mostly), Libya and Cuba, Sahrawi students hosting. There are also some Sahrawi students benefit from scholarships in Europe, especially in Spain, that, in this case, usually provided by regional institutions. Cooperation projects in education, with the ministry of education and upbringing of the Saharawi Republic, in camps, limited the supply of school materials and improving the facilities of the various schools. However, there are still many gaps in primary, either by the lack of trained professionals to train teachers (many migrate out), or material shortage (there is a deficit in textbooks, and hardly any libraries). Despite the difficulties, and the few media, Education is free and meets the demands of all refugees to the education of Saharawi children.
Many young people who did not complete high school education are facing a bleak picture, and that unemployment leads, usually, vagrancy being almost all the free time by the lack of leisure and entertainment for teens and young, hence it is very large demand for vocational training. Usually the girls are dealing with household chores to help their families in the care of children, in food, in the collection of food and drinking water. It is, so, dependence of a large family environment, especially when the lack of opportunity affects many more women, hence, the offer must focus more on them.
In vocational training there are some projects in the camps, although it reduced the number of beneficiaries in each project whose implementation is reduced to a specific municipality, the, in some cases, boarding schools far from the camp area, often making it difficult to access for those without transport medium for projects that do not have transportation for beneficiaries. The training is intended, mainly, girls and women. Young people are the most vulnerable segment of the population, and limited employment opportunities and training forces responsible for the administration of F. Polisario to find projects that promote the empowerment of girls and women of the family environment. This local government actively cooperates with international organizations which wish to develop a project that contributes to improving the situation of this sector of the population, to be one of the highest priority needs.
Mostly it is men who benefit from the few projects that develop vocational training in the camps, especially automotive and carpentry, though other, scarce, sewing of which benefit both men and women.

CONTEXT

The refugee camps were built in the year 1975, when you started the conflict between the Polisario Front, on the one hand, and Morocco y Mauritania, on the other hand. The latter invaded the territory of Western Sahara, former Spanish colony, after signing the agreements in Madrid in November of that year, through which Spain transferred the administration of the territory to the two countries, fact that marked the beginning of the conflict whose duration exceeds three decades. That invasion triggered a mass exodus of much of the Saharawi civil population into the territories controlled by the Polisario, even when dealing with military zone, and seen that some civilians were hit by the bombing of one of the belligerents, Algeria gave part of their territory where camps were built to be safe from bombs to civilians who opposed the invasion, near the Algerian city of Tindouf, southwest of the North African country. After 16 years of armed conflicts between Morocco and the F. POLISARIO, the two warring sides accept the dialogue sponsored by the United Nations Organization (UN), and sign a settlement plan that included the entry of a cease-fire, September 1991, and the holding of a referendum for the Saharawi self-determination which decides the future of their territory, namely, choose independence or integration into Morocco. For the development of the UN settlement plan created the MINURSO (International Mission of the United Nations for the Referendum in Western Sahara), whose numbers should monitor compliance with the agreements signed by the warring parties. The target date for the referendum was 1992, but was delayed and until today there is still no agreement to date to the said referendum, despite several rounds of negotiations and agreements of these negotiations resulted, Morocco often, Gallo supported, rejects what he, voluntarily, accepted. And until today the Sahrawi still pending awaited referendum to decide the future of their territory.
The construction of the camps was-and remains- provisional and from the beginning the population dependent on international humanitarian aid to survive. This assistance was provided by neighboring countries such as Algeria and Libya, who provided tents for the population, as well as blankets and basic food, and, after, with the arrival of international organizations, was increasing aid to improve the situation of the first refugees, but did not cover all the needs of the population, especially in health and education.
Because of population growth of the population, Sahrawi refugee camps was necessary to reorganize by a division into four large camps called Wilayas (provinces), each wilaya has an administrative center and a regional hospital, and consists of several districts called Dairas, daira and each is divided into four districts, and has a school and a dispensary. A fifth camp is a training school called 27 February. There is a national administrative center called Rabuni, where daily life is organized in the camps and are located in ministries of the Saharawi Republic, where humanitarian aid stored in central warehouses Sahara Crescent, which is where it divides. There are also two large boarding schools, and a general hospital located in Rabuni.
The four are named wilayas major cities in occupied Western Sahara. Laayoune, Smara, Dakhla and Auserd. The wilaya of Dakhla and Smara consist of seven dairas, while Laayoune and have six dairas Auserd. The number of inhabitants per wilaya exceed forty thousand, Smara being most populous camp because since its construction was located near the only paved road that had, communicating with Rabuni and Tindouf. At present there is another road that connects the wilaya of Laayoune in the Algerian city of Tindouf. Among the other wilayas communication is through ground tracks.
The organization of the Sahrawi refugee camps, mainly, allows the location of people and facilitates the distribution of humanitarian aid.

Currently, the Youth Union of Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro (UJSARIO) has centers for youth-houses in each daira, and a regional headquarters in each wilaya in coordination with the headquarters of the organization Rabuni. The centers for the youth-house are intended to be a reference point for youth and adolescents, especially women, meeting, meetings, also be utilized to provide foreign language workshops and serve as a venue for conducting various entertainment activities.

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